dr. marius crisan
An interpretation of the Dracula myth which sheds light on Romanian spiritual values
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Romanian and foreign researchers

Dr. Carmen Andraş
Scientific researcher at "Gheorghe Şincai" Institute for Social Sciences
and the Humanities of the Romanian Academy
, Târgu Mureş.

Author of the book România şi imaginile ei în literatura de cãlãtorie britanicã: un spaţiu de frontierã culturalã ("Romania and Its Images in British Travel Writing. A space of cultural border"), Cluj Napoca: Dacia, 2003. The book is cited in many articles or volumes, for instance in Alexandra Berlina and Steven Totosy de Zepetnek, "Comparative Literature in Russian and Central and East Europe", in The Cambridge Companion to Comparative Literature and Comparative Cultural Studies, CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture (Library) (2011), p. 264, 265. ISI publication; Dennis Deletant, "Romanians", in Imagology. The cultural construction and literary representation of national characters. A critical survey. Beller, Manfred and Joep Leerssen (Ed.) (Amsterdam/New York, NY, 2007, XVI, pp. 223-226).

Author of several volumes on imagology and symbolic geography. Editor of the volume New Directions in Travel Writing and Travel Studies, Shaker Publishing, Aachen (Germany), 2010.

Author of several articles on the image of Romania in British literature. The relation between Dracula and the reflection of Transylvania in British literature is discussed in the essay "The Image of Transylvania in English Literature", Journal of Dracula Studies 1 ( 1999): 38-48. (also available online: here)

Dr. Elizabeth Miller

Dr. Elizabeth Miller, Professor Emerita of Memorial University of Newfoundland, is a leading expert in Dracula Studies. Besides many articles on Dracula and participations in documentary films, she has published several books on this theme, such as: Reflections on Dracula (1997), Dracula: The Shade and the Shadow (1998), Dracula: Sense & Nonsense (2000, 2006), Dracula (a coffee-table book) (2000), a volume on Dracula for the Dictionary of Literary Biography (2005) and A Dracula Handbook (2005), Bram Stoker's Dracula: A Documentary Journey into Vampire Country and the Dracula Phenomenon (2009).

Since 1999 on, Miller also edits Journal of Dracula Studies. She edited Bram Stoker's Dracula: A Documentary Volume. Dictionary of Literary Biography, vol 304 (2005), one of the amplest works on Dracula. The book Dracula: Sense & Nonsense is a tool which cannot lack in the study of Dracula, because, as this field has been filled with conjectures and speculations, any novice needs to know which the trustful sources are. The one who approaches Dracula studies has to be careful enough, as there are almost 200 pages in which Miller finds plenty of errors, misunderstanding and false stereotypes regarding Stoker's novel.

In the influential essay "Filing for Divorce: Count Dracula vs Vlad Ţepeş", (published in the volume Dracula: The Shade and the Shadow), Miller shows that a serious study of Stoker's famous novel should start from the dissociation between the historical voivode of Wallachia and Bram Stoker's vampire count.

She edited together with Robert Eighteen-Bisang Bram Stoker's Notes for Dracula. A Facsimile Edition (Jefferson and London: McFarland, 2008).

As J.P. Riquelme shows, "Miller contributes to the reevaluation of Stoker's accomplishment by challenging a range of misunderstandings and misrepresentations, especially concerning Stoker's sources and his life" ("A Critical History of Dracula", quoted in Dictionary of Literary Biography 304, p.361).

Click here for Professor Miller's homepage: www.blooferland.com

Dr. Carol Senf

Professor and Associate Chair, School of Literature, Communication and Culture, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA

Dr. Carol Senf is the author of several books on Dracula and its author, Bram Stoker: Bram Stoker (2010), Science and Social Science in Bram Stoker's Fiction (2002), and Dracula: Between Tradition and Modernism (1998). She also wrote the Introduction to The Critical Response to Bram Stoker (1994) and annotated Stoker's The Mystery of the Sea (2007) and Lady Athlyne (2007).

She has also written essays on Dracula as well as other Stoker novels (The Mystery of the Sea, Lady Athlyne, The Jewel of Seven Stars, The Lady of the Shroud, and Lair of the White Worm) as well as essays on the Brontë sisters, George Eliot, Charles Dickens, and Stephen King.

Articles available online:

"Rethinking the New Woman in Stoker's Fiction: Looking at Lady Athlyne" - click here
A Response to "Dracula and the Idea of Europe" - click aici

Professor Farkas Jenö, PhD.

Professor Farkas Jenö, PhD., University Eötvös Loránd, Budapest, is specialised in the history of vampirism and the Dracula myth. He is well known in the field of Dracula studies for having discovered the first film inspired from Dracula, which was produced in Hungary in 1921.

He discovered the screenplay, written by Károly Lajthay si Mihály Kertész/Michael Curtiz, and a few fragments of the first film about Dracula produced by Károly Lajthay: Drakula halála - Dracula's Death, 1921. The copies of the two versions of the film (in Hungarian and German) have been lost.

He published the following books on the Dracula myth: Drakula vajda históriája (The History of Voivode Dracula), Budapest, Akadémiai Kiadó, 1989 and Drakula és a vámpírok (Dracula and the vampires), Budapest, Palamart Kiadó, 2010.

The volume Drakula és a vámpírok discusses the evolution of the Dracula myth from the historical character to the complex figure of Count Dracula. The author presents the results of his research on the relationship between Vlad Dracul and Vlad Ţepeş-Dracula with the Hungarian Kingdom and on Vlad Ţepeş's detention at Visegrad and Buda. The book discusses the Dracula myth from historical, literary, sociological and artistic perspectives, offering a synthesis of the image of Dracula as seen by his contemporaries and posterity. The theme of the vampire in literature is also discussed, as well as the development of the Dracula films.

Professor Farkas is Director of PALAMART Publishing House, Budapest (since 1993). He received the titles Chevalier dans l'Ordre des Palmes académiques (2003) and Officier dans l'Ordre des Palmes académiques (2009).


Marius Crişan:
Works on Dracula and the Image of Romania

Group of Dracula Researchers in Transylvania
I. Essays on Dracula and the image of Romania published in volumes
(for the complete list of essays go to publication list)

1. "Descriptions of Landscape in Bram Stoker's Dracula". in the volume New Directions in Travel Writing and Travel Studies, edited by Carmen Andraş, Aachen (Germany): Shaker Publishing, 2010, 311-323. (for details click here)

2. "Welcome to my House! Enter Freely and of your own will!" (Dracula 26): Transylvanian Hospitality in Bram Stoker's Sources for Dracula". in the volume Philological Explorations, Edited by Gilda M. Socarrás, Athens (Greece): Athens Institute for Education and Research, 2009. 301-308 (also available online: here ).

3. "At every station there were groups of people, sometimes crowds, and in all sorts of attire: The Transylvanian World as a Stage in Stoker's Dracula and in His Sources" in the volume Omogenitate, diversitate, identitate: Spatiu european si integrare. Vol II: O cartografie identitara: studii de caz. Editors Mihaela Irimia and Dragos Ivana, Centrul de Excelenta pentru Studierea Identitatii Culturale, University of Bucharest UP, 2009, 290-306.

4. "Imagini ale Timişoarei în literatura britanica" ("Images of Timişoara in British Literature"). in the volume Studia in honorem magistri: Alexandru Metea, Timişoara, Editura Universitaţii de Vest, 2008, 159 - 174.

5. "Oradea, a model for Bram Stoker's Transylvanian City", in Proceedings of the International Conference European, National and Regional Identity, Editura Universitaţii din Oradea (Oradea U.P.), Oradea, 2011. pp. 129-142.

II. Articles on Dracula and the image of Romania published in journals
(for the complete list of articles go to publication list):

1. "19th Century Oradea: The Reflections of a Multiethnic City in British Travel Literature". Revista Româna de Geografie Politica. Year XIII, no. 1 / 2011, pp. 82 - 89 full text available online here.

2. "Bram Stoker's Transylvania: between Historical and Mythical Readings" in TRANS - Internet Journal for Cultural Studies, Nr. 17, April 2010. full text available online here. included in ERIH database (European Reference Index for the Humanities)

3. "I Left My Paradise Alone": British Notes on Oraviţa and Its Neighbourhood. in "Anuarul Institutului "Gheorghe Şincai" al Academiei Române", Vol. XIV/2011, p. 137 - 149. here

4. Ad Aquas Herculi Sacras: The Image of Baile Herculane in the 19th Century British Travel Literature, in "Anuarul Institutului "Gheorghe Şincai" al Academiei Române", Chapter Spatiu si civilizatie urbana: între realitate si imaginatie/Urban Space and Civilization: Between Reality and Imagination, Vol. XIII/2010, p. 24-40. (for details click here)

5. "Transylvania, A Superstitious Land: Bram Stoker's Dracula and His Sources for the Novel". Journal of Ethnography and Folklore, Serie noua, 1-2/2008, Editura Academiei Române: 81-90 (for details click here).

6. "Transylvania as a Borderland Between the West and the East", Anuarul Institutului de Cercetari Socio-Umane "Gheorghe Şincai" al Academiei Române, nr. 11, 2008: 58 - 63. Available online on CEEOL database: here

7. "The Models for Castle Dracula in Stoker's Sources on Transylvania", Journal of Dracula Studies, Toronto, Canada, no. 10, 2008: 10 - 19: full text available online: here.

8. "The Land Between Good and Evil: Stoker's Transylvania", English Studies 2006, Turin: Trauben, 2007: 55 - 78 (for details click here).

III. Conference Presentations on Dracula and the image of Romania
(for the complete list of conference presentations go to publication list):

1. "Vampires and Stereotypes: Post-Stoker Imagined Transylvania", paper presented in plenary session at the International Conference Vampires: Myths of the Past and the Future. University of London. Institute of Germanic and Romance Studies. November 2011. For details click here

2. "The Mountain Towns of the Banat in British Travel Literature", The Days of the Romanian Academy - The Archives and the Research, Sovata, May, 2010.

3. "The Two Edges of Europe as seen in Stoker's Sources for Dracula". International Conference AnthropoEast. The Europenistaion of Balkans, The Balkanisation of Europe, Craiova, 26 - 29 November 2008.

4. "Hospitality Versus Hostility in Bram Stoker's Transylvania and in his Sources for Dracula." International Conference on Literature, Languages and Linguistics, Athens Institute for Education and Research, Athens, Greece, 28-31 July 2008, for details click here.

5. "British Travelling in Transylvania: From Reality to Fiction or the Other Way Round?" An Identitary Cartography: Case Studies International Micro-Conference Centre of Excellence for the Study of Cultural Identity, Bucharest, 9-10 May, 2008. For details click here

6. "The Imperialism of the Imagination: The Case of Transylvania". the international conference KCTOS: Knowledge, Creativity and Transformations of Societies, Vienna, 6 - 9 December 2007, (also available online: here ).

7. "Transylvania as A Border Land Between the West and the East", the international conference Continuity and discontinuity in East - West relationships organized by The "Gheorghe Şincai" Research Institute for Social Sciences and the Humanities of the Romanian Academy, Târgu Mureş, Romania, 25-26 May 2007, for details see here.

8. "The Dual Image of Transylvania in its British Literary Reflections", the symposium "Dracula - Blurring the Boundaries between Truth and Fiction", organized by the Transylvanian Society of Dracula, Sighisoara, May 2007. for details see here.

9. "Myth and Sensationalism in the Construction of Transylvania in English Literature", ESSE 8 Conference , London, 29 August - 2 September, 2006 (the abstract published online: here

10. "Imagini ale Transilvaniei în literaturile engleza si americana" ("Images of Transylvania in English and American literatures"), International Symposium on Teaching Strategy, Lugoj, May, 2006.

IV. Contribution to documentary films

Speech about the representation of the gypsies in Bram Stoker's Dracula and in his sources for Transylvania in The Vampire and the Voivode. The True Story behind Bram Stoker's gothic novel Dracula. Teleg Films. UK, 2008. (draculadocumentary).

V References to my publications and to my research on Dracula and the image of Romania:
- Robert Z. Cohen. Transylvania: Birthplace of Vampires. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 2012. p. 60.
- David Mandler. "Vambery, Victorian Culture and Stoker's Dracula" in Comparative Hungarian Cultural Studies, edited by Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek and Louise O. Vasváry Purdue U. P. 2011. p. 54, 56.
- Louise O. Vasváry, Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek, and Carlo Salzani. "Selected Bibliography for Work in Comparative Hungarian Cultural Studies" in Comparative Hungarian Cultural Studies, edited by Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek and Louise O. Vasváry, Purdue U. P., 2011. p. 351.
- Susannah Clements The Vampire Defanged: How the Embodiment of Evil Became a Romantic Hero. Grand Rapids: Brazzos Press, 2011, p. 168 - 169, 184, 194.
- Carlo Salzani and Steven Totösy de Zepetnek. "Bibliography for Work in Travel Studies". in Comparative Literature and Culture, (ISI publication - indexed in AHCI) (for details click here)
- Carmen Andraş, "Spaţiu şi civilizaţie urbana", în Academica. Revista editata de Academia Româna, nr. 7-8 (iulie-august)/2010, p. 32-33. ISSN 1220-5737.
- "Bram Stoker Literary Criticism. Dracula". (for details click here).
- Mihaela Irimia in ODISEI II: O cartografie identitara: Studii de caz. edited by Mihaela Irimia and Dragoş Ivana, University of Bucharest U. P., 2009. pp 18-19).


Bibliography of the project

>>> For the Bibliography of the Project please click here [*.pdf file]


Useful links related to the topic of the research

Dracula Research Centre (maintained by Elizabeth Miller) read
Journal of Dracula Studies read
Documentary film:
The Vampire and the Voivode. The True Story behind Bram Stoker's gothic novel Dracula. Teleg Films. UK, 2008
Bram Stoker Centenary Conference Bram Stoker and Gothic Transformations, University of Hull, 12 - 14 April 2012 look
Bram Stoker Centenary Symposium Open Graves, Open Minds, University of Hertfordshire, 20 - 21 April 2012 look
Gothic Readings in the Dark look

Proiect CNCS, UEFISCDI, tip PD
Titlul proiectului: Impactul unui mit:
Dracula si imaginea României în literaturile
britanica si americana

Codul proiectului: PN-II-RU-PD-2011-3-0194